Measurement of Water Footprint and Virtual Water Trade in the Economic Sectors of Yazd Province uUsing the Input-Output Approach

Document Type : Case Study


Yazd University


Nowadays, researchers emphasise that the solution for the water crisis is the demand-side management rather than increasing the water supply. Accordingly, in recent years, concepts of virtual water and water footprint have been introduced which are highly regarded by researchers and policymakers. Many believe that the idea of importing virtual water can be considered by policymakers as a solution for the water shortage problem. The aim of this study is to measure the virtual water trade (imports and exports) and the water footprint in the various economic sectors of Yazd province. For this purpose, the input-output model (table of 2011) has been used. The results show that the total water footprint of Yazd province in 2011 was approximately 1538.8 mm3, where 50% and 65.3% of this is for external (outside of the province) and agriculture sector, respectively. In 2011, Yazd province also imported and exported approximately 782.2 m3 and 442.7 m3 virtual water, respectively. Therefore, the net level of virtual water import of Yazd province is approximately 339.7 m3. The sectors of “food products, beverages, and tobacco” and “mining” are the biggest net virtual water importers and exporters in this province, respectively.


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Volume 6, Issue 3 - Serial Number 14
Water and Economy
March 2020
Pages 11-18
  • Receive Date: 02 September 2018
  • Revise Date: 29 May 2019
  • Accept Date: 15 July 2019
  • First Publish Date: 20 February 2020