مروری بر روابط مؤلفه‌های هیدرولوژیک بیلان آب در ارزیابی تلفات بارندگی

نوع مقاله : مروری

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای آبخیزداری، گروه مهندسی طبیعت، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم زمین، دانشگاه شهرکرد، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه مهندسی طبیعت، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم زمین، دانشگاه شهرکرد، ایران

10.22067/jwsd.v9i3.2206.1152

چکیده

در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک سهم قابل‌توجهی از بارندگی هرگز به نهرها یا آب‌های زیرزمینی نمی‌رسد که این بخش به نام تلفات بارندگی شناخته می‌شود و می‌تواند در میزان جریان رودخانه‌ای یا تغذیه آب‌های زیرزمینی نقش تعیین‌کننده‌ای داشته باشد. تلفات بارندگی در بسیاری از مدل‌های هیدرولوژیکی به‌عنوان یکی از اجزای اساسی پیش‌بینی مورد استفاده قرار می‌گیرد. در این مطالعه مؤلفه‌های تلفات هیدرولوژیکی برگاب، ذخیره چالابی، تبخیرتعرق، نفوذ و رطوبت خاک مرور شده و همچنین مشخصات مؤلفه‌های مذکور، مفاهیم کلی، مطالعات انجام‌شده و همچنین مقایسه روش‌های مفید محاسباتی این اجزاء تلفات هیدرولوژیکی، بیان‌شده‌اند. بررسی مطالعات نشان می‌دهد که با توجه به ماهیت پیچیده و تصادفی فرآیند بارندگی و عوامل متعدد مؤثر بر آن، هنوز از تلفات بارندگی درک جامعی نشده و در بسیاری از شبیه‌سازی‌ها به ساده‌سازی سامانه‌ها از طریق لحاظ نمودن نفوذ به‌عنوان تابع تلفات، بسنده شده است. در نتیجه، غالباً در کاربردهای عملی از مقادیر ثابتی برای تلفات در مدل‌سازی بارندگی استفاده می‌کنند که به لحاظ در نظر نگرفتن تغییرات زمانی و مکانی تلفات، منجر به برآورد نادرستی از کمیت رواناب می‌شود. بنابراین اولاً توجه به قالب زمان و مکان در مدل‌های تلفات بارندگی موجود و حتی مفاهیم آن توصیه می‌شود، ثانیاً باید توجه بیشتری به روابط بین اجزاء شود، زیرا مثلاً در مقیاس زمانی روزانه ممکن است یک مؤلفه نظیر تبخیر تعرق اهمیت کمتری نسبت به بازه‌های زمانی درازمدت پیدا کند یا در یک حوضه آبخیز شهری به علت دست‌کاری انسانی، فرآیندهای تلفات مشابه حوضه‌های طبیعی نباشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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دوره 9، شماره 3 - شماره پیاپی 25
تعادل بخشی آب زیرزمینی: سهلِ ممتنع!
آذر 1401
صفحه 11-24
  • تاریخ دریافت: 12 خرداد 1401
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  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 01 آذر 1401