معرفی نونیل فنل و روش‌‏های حذف آن از پساب

نوع مقاله : مروری

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم محیط‏زیست، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط‏زیست، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران

2 گروه محیط‏زیست، دانشکده مهندسی، دانشگاه تهران

3 گروه شیمی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران مرکز

چکیده

نونیل ‏فنل به ‏عنوان یک ترکیب زیست ‏ستیز سمی، سرطان‌‏زا و مختل ‏کننده غدد درون‌‏ریز با ایجاد اختلال در سیستم هورمونی موجودات اهمیت دارد. این ماده از تجزیه نونیل فنل اتوکسیلات‌ها (مواد فعال سطحی غیریونی) تولید می‌شود. باتوجه ‏به خصوصیات فیزیکوشیمیایی نونیل‏فنل نظیر حلالیت کم و آب‏گریزی زیاد، اغلب در لجن فاضلاب، پساب تصفیه‌‏خانه‌‏های فاضلاب، رسوبات رودخانه، خاک و آب‏‌های سطحی یافت می‌‏شود. از آنجایی‏که نونیل‌‏فنل یکی از فراوان‌‏ترین و سمی‏ترین آلکیل ‏فنل ‏ها است، استفاده و تولید این نوع ترکیبات در کشورهای عضو اتحادیه اروپا ممنوع شده و در بسیاری از کشورها مانند کانادا و ژاپن به شدت تحت نظارت قرار گرفته است. باتوجه ‏به سمی بودن و اثرات تجمع زیستی برای موجودات زنده به‏ ویژه آبزیان، ایجاد قوانین و مقررات به همراه آنالیز و اندازه‏‌گیری نونیل‌‏فنل بسیار اهمیت دارد. در این راستا، برخی صنایع با ایجاد قوانین آینده مجبور به حذف و یا کاهش استفاده از آلاینده‏‌های میکرو با فراهم نمودن جایگزین‌‏هایی با سمیت و پایداری کمتر، ارزان‌‏تر و با کارایی مناسب خواهند شد. ارتقای عملیات تصفیه‏‌خانه‏‌های فاضلاب با فناوری‌‏های تصفیه پیشرفته در راستای کاهش این نوع آلاینده‏‌ها در حد استاندارد مهم است. در این زمینه روش‏‌های مختلفی با راندمان بالا برای تصفیه این نوع مواد از پساب مانند جذب با نانوجاذب‏‌ها و نانوذرات، جذب زیستی، اکسیداسیون پیشرفته، تجزیه نوری و ... به همراه راه‏کارهایی برای کاهش آن از لجن فاضلاب مانند کمپوست و تثبیت هوازی پیشنهاد شده است.

چکیده تصویری

معرفی نونیل فنل و روش‌‏های حذف آن از پساب

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


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